MISSIONARIES AND COLONIALISM: The Nineteenth Century British and Contemporary Korean Missionaries in Zambia

Hyunwoo Koo

Abstract


There are about ten Korean missionaries in Zambia, which is Christianized since experiencing colonial era under Western Christians. This situation brings a question regarding to their uniqueness compare to the nineteenth-century-British missionaries: how are these Korean missionaries distinct from Western evangelists and what has shaped this difference? To answer the question, this article compares several groups of missionaries by consulting historical records, established literature, and interviews produced by author. Especially, voices from the Korean missionaries in Zambia reveal the distinctiveness of themselves as the people who share the experience of living under colonial rule, and suggest their role within Zambian Christianity and society.

Keywords


Colonialism, British Missionaries, Korea, Nationalism, Zambian Christianity

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson, Allan H. African Reformation: African Initiated Christianity in the 20th Century. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2001.

Barrett, David, George T. Kurian, and Todd M. Johnson, eds. World Christian Encyclopedia: A Comparative Surveys of Churches and Religions in the Modern World, vol. 1. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Brown, Arthur Judson. The Mastery of the Far East. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1919.

Brown, Arthur Judson and Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Foreign Missions. Report of a Visitation of the Korea Mission of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions. New York: The Board, 1902.

Brown, Judith M. and William Roger Louis, eds. The Oxford History of the British Empire, vol. 4: The Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Comaroff, Jean and John Comaroff. “Christianity and colonialism in South Africa.” American Ethnologist 13, no. 1 (1986): 1–22.

Comaroff, Jean and John Comaroff. Of Revelation and Revolution, vol. 1: Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness in South Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Ferguson, Naill. Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. New York: Basic Books, 2002.

Gordon, David M. Invisible Agents: Spirits in Central African History. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2012.

Hanciles, Jehu. Euthanasia of a Mission: African Church Autonomy in a Colonial Context. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.

Hastings, Adrian. The Church in Africa: 1450–1950. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Hulbert, Homer B. ed., The Japanese in Korea: Extracts from the Korea Review. N.p.: n.p., 1907.

Hutchison, William R. “A Moral Equivant for Imperialism: Americans and the Promotion of ‘Christian Civilization,’ 1880–1920.” In Missionary Ideologies in the Imperialist Era: 1880–1920: Papers from the Durham Consultation, 1981, edited by William R. Hutchison and Torben Christensen, 167–78. Aarhus, Denmark: Christensens Bogtrykkeri, 1983.

Johnson, Todd M., and Kenneth R. Ross, eds. Atlas of Global Christianity: 1910–2010. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009.

Kaoma, Kapya. Raised Hopes, Shattered Dreams: Democracy, the Oppressed and the Church in Africa (The Case of Zambia). Trenton, NJ: Africa World, 2015.

Kim, Kwang-ok “Colonial Body and Indigenous Soul.” In Colonial Rule and Social Change in Korea, edited by Hong Yung Lee, Yong-Chool Ha, and Clark W. Sorensen. 264–313. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012.

Kim, Sebastian C. H. and Kirsteen Kim, A History of Korean Christianity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Kim, Sŭngt'ae, Singmin-gwollyeok-gwa Chonggyo [Colonial Authority and Religion]. Seoul: The Institute of the History of Christianity in Korea, 2012.

Kŭrisŭdo Sinmun. Oct., 3, 1901.

Lee, Timothy S. “A Political Factor in the Rise of Protestantism in Korea: Protestantism and the 1919 March First Movement.” Church History 69, no. 1 (March 2000): 116–142.

Matsutani, Motokazu. “Church over Nation: Christian Missionaries and Korean Christians in Colonial Korea.” PhD diss., Harvard University, 2012.

Maxwell, David. “Decolonization.” In Missions and Empire, edited by Norman Etherington, 285–306. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Moffett, Samuel H. The Christians of Korea. New York: Friendship Press, 1962.

Noll, Mark A. The New Shape of World Christianity: How American Experience Reflects Global Faith. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2009.

Oak, Sung-Deuk. The Making of Korean Christianity: Protestant Encounters with Korean Religions, 1876–1915. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2013.

Olupona, Jacob K. African Religions: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Park, Albert L. Building a Heaven on Earth: Religion, Activism, and Protest in Japanese-Occupied Korea. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2015.

Park, Chungh-Shin. Protestantism and Politics in Korea. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003.

Pew Research: Religion and Public Life Project. “Global Christianity.” Last modified December 1, 2014. Accessed March 25, 2015. http://www.pewforum.org/interactives/global-christianity/.

Phiri, Isabel Apawo. “President Fredrick J. T. Chiluba of Zambia: the Christian Nation and Democracy.” Journal of Religion in Africa 33, no. 4 (2003): 401-28.

Porter, Andrew. “‘Cultural Imperialism’ and Protestant Missionary Enterprise, 1780–1914.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 25, no. 3 (September 1997): 367–391.

Ray, Benjamin C. African Religions: Symbols, Rituals, and Community. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000.

Robert, Dana. Introduction to Converting Colonialism: Visions and Realities in Mission History, 1706–1914, by Dana Robert, 1–20. Grand Rapid, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2008.

Rotberg, Robert I. Christian Missionaries and the Creation of Northern Rhodesia, 1880–1924. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1965.

Schmid, Andre. Korea between Empires, 1895–1919. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Smith, R. Drew. “Missionaries, Church Movements, and the Shifting Religious Significance of the State in Zambia.” Journal of Church and State 41, no. 3 (Summer 1999): 525–550.

Stuart, John. “‘Speaking for the Unvoiced’? British Missionaries and Aspects of African Nationalism, 1949–1959.” In Missions, Nationalism, and the End of Empire, edited by Brian Stanley. 183–193. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2003.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.47135/mahabbah.v1i1.2

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Indexing and Database :

 

    

   e-ISSN : 2723-147X     p-ISSN :  2746-2366

  

 Creative Commons License

MAHABBAH: Journal of Religion and Education under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Address: Matana University Tower, P3 Floor, Z. Handiman Library, CBD Barat Raya Street, RT.01, Kelapa Dua, Tangerang, Banten 15810, Indonesia.